單元四、英語中的難用字花費

Spend, Cost, Take, Expense, Pay

在英文中,如果要使用『花費』這個詞,通常會有好幾個詞可供選擇,例如『spend』、『cost』、『take』、『expense』、『pay』等,以下是這幾個字的用法。

 

1.Spend:

1)通常使用spend時會以人當主詞,當要表達花費金錢來買你想買的東西或花費時間、精力來做某事時都可以用此字。

公式: spend time/ money (on)  V-ing / N 

ExBusinessmen spend enormous amounts (on) advertising their products.
Engineers spend much time and energy developing brilliant solutions.
We spend about
500 a week on food.

2)另外,如果當你花一段時間待在一個地方時亦可用此字。

ExWe spend the night in a hotel.

 

注意:spend money/ time on doing something
I spent
50 for this jacket.
I spent
50 on this jacket.

另外,pay for (付費) spend(花費)的差別是,用pay 的時候,是你一定要付的。而用spend 的時候你可以選擇的。

 

2. Cost:

當使用這個字的時候,通常不會用人來當主詞。而cost可當動詞名詞

1)當名詞時,是指開銷,表示某樣東西所花費的錢數,例如,生活費,成本。

⊙用法:The cost of N/ V-ing

ExMany old people cannot afford the cost of heating their homes.
The students are given
50 a year to cover the cost of books and stationary.

2)當動詞時,It 或其他事物都可用來當主詞。

⊙用法:It / 事物 cost 人+錢+to V

ExHow much do these shoes cost? They cost 30.
It cost me
100 to buy this notebook.

注意:不能用cost來表達花時間。

 

3.Take:

當要表達花時間來完成某件事的時候,可用take 這個字。通常這個字和cost 一樣不會用人當主詞。

⊙用法:It/事物 take 人+時間+to V

ExSince the roads are very bad, the journey took us a long time.
It took her all afternoon to finish it.

注意:如果用It 當主詞時,碰到時間用take,碰到錢用cost

 

4. Expense:

使用expense這個字的時候,是指消耗、消費在時間、金錢或精力等的花費。Expense是名詞,複數時是expenses

ExI don’t know how the government can justify the expense of the project.
Her company sent her to Paris and paid all her expenses.

注意:expense cost 是同義字有時可互用。

ExThe expenses of the trip = The cost of the trip

 

【整理】

花費表示方式對照表

時間

 I spend (on) (it) takes

金錢

 I spend (on) (it) costs I pay(付費)

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